• 名称:考研英语历年[1997-2
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Section I Cloze Test Directions:

For each numbered blank in the following passage,there are four choices marked[A],

[B],[C],and[D].Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANS WER SHEET

1by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil.(10 points)

Until recent 1y most historians spoke very critically of the Industrial Revolution.

Theylthat in the long run industrialization greatly raised the standard of living for the 2 man.

But they insisted that its 3 resuts during the period from 1750 to 1850 were widespread poverty and misery for the 4 of the English population.5 contrast they saw in the preceding hundred years from 1650 to 1750,when England was still a 6 agricultural country,a period of great abundance and prosperity.

This view.7,is generally thought to be wrong.Specialists 8 history and economics,have 9 two things:that the period from 1650 to 1750 was 10 by great poverty,and that industrialization certainly did not worsen and may have actually improved the conditions for the majority of the populace.





Readthe following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentencesinto Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do animals have rights? This is how the question is usually put. Itsounds like a useful, groundclearing wayto start. (71) Actually, itisn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights,which is something the world does not have.

On one view of rights, to be sure, it necessarily follows thatanimals have none. (72) Somephilosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part ofan exchange of duties and entitlements. Therefore, animals cannot haverights. The idea of punishing a tiger that kills somebody is absurd, forexactly the same reason, so is the idea that tigers have rights. However, thisis only one account, and by no means an uncontested one. It denies rights notonly to animals but also to some people — for instance to infants, the mentallyincapable and future generations. In addition, it is unclear what force acontract can have for people who never consented to it, how do you reply tosomebody who says “I don't like this contract”?

The point is this: without agreement on the rights of people,arguing about the rights of animals is fruitless. (73) It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: itinvites you to think that animals should be treated either with theconsideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all.This is a false choice. Better to start with another, more fundamental,question: is the way we treat animals a moral issue at all?

Many deny it. (74)Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevantrespect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area ofmoral choice. Any regard for the suffering of animals is seen as a mistake— a sentimental displacement of feeling that should properly be directed toother humans.

This view which holds that torturing a monkey is morally equivalentto chopping wood, may seem bravely “logical”. In fact it is simply shallow: theconfused center is right to reject it. The most elementary form of moralreasoning — the ethical equivalent of learning to crawl — is to weigh others'interests against one's own. This in turn requires sympathy and imagination:without there is no capacity for moral thought. To see an animal in pain isenough, for most, to engage sympathy. (75)When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind's instinct formoral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather thanlaughed at.








71)Actually, it isn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of humanrights, which is something the world does not have.


71) 状语结构Actually, // 主句it // isn't, //原因状语从句because // it // assumes // 宾语从句that there // is // an agreed account of / human rights, // 定语从句which // is // something // 定语从句(省略that)the world // does not have.


it isn’t = It isn’t a useful, ground-clearingway to start.译作“事实并非如此”也能得分。


because it assumes

it 指代“这种问题”,是第二次提及,所以可以译作“它”。

assume:to take forgranted; suppose 想当然;以为

an agreed accountof human rights:对于人权的约定的看法,共同的认识

human rights 人的权利,人权

account:carefulthought 仔细考虑

which 指代“agreedaccount”






72) Some philosophers argue that rightsexist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties andentitlements.


72) 主句Some philosophers // argue // 宾语从句that rights // exist // only within a social contract, // 介词短语作非限制性定语as // part of / an exchange of / duties and entitlements.


argue:to attemptto prove by reasoning; maintain or contend 坚持,主张列举证明极力列举理由以证明;坚持或主张

social contract 社会契约

contract:an agreementbetween two or more parties, especially one that is written and enforceable bylaw 合同,契约两个或两个以上当事人之间达成的一种协议,尤指具有法律效力的书面协议

as part of 作为(是)……的一部分

exchange:to give inreturn for something received; trade 交换,交易给…以作为收到某物的回报;贸易

duties and entitlements:权利和义务

entitle:to furnishwith a right or claim to something 给…权利或给…资格




宾语从句 ,as的用法,多重后置定语

73) It leads the discussion to extremesat the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated eitherwith the consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no considerationat all.


73) 简单句It // leads the discussion to // extremes // 介词短语作状语结构at the outset: // 复合句it // invites you to //think // 宾语从句that animals // 被动结构should be treated // 并列结构1 either 介词短语作方式状语with the consideration // 定语从句省略结构(that)humans // extend to // other humans, // 并列结构2or // 介词短语作方式状语 with no consideration at all.


it 指代“the point”(这种观点,这种说法)。

lead:to guide ordirect in a course 导引在一方向牵引或指


at the outset 从一开始 = at thestart / beginning

invites you tothink 使人们认为

invite:to tend tobring on; provoke 引起;招致

that animals shouldbe treated 它使人们认为应该这样对待动物

treat:to act orbehave in a specified manner toward 对待对…以某种特定的方式行动或表现

consideration:thoughtfulconcern for others; solicitude 关心对他人的体贴关心;担忧

humans extend toother humans 人对待人

extend:to makeavailable; provide 可用;提供





74) Arguing from the view that humansare different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kindthink that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.


74) 分词短语作状语Arguing from // the view // 同位语从句that humans // are different from // animals // 介词短语作状语结构in every relevant respect, // 主句extremists /后置定语of this kind // (指代关系)think// 宾语从句that animals // lie outside // the area of /moral choice.


arguing from theview 从……观点看,持……观点

be differentfrom... 与……不同

in every relevantrespect 在各相关方面

respect:a particularaspect, feature, or detail 某方面某个方面、某种特征或细节

relevant:having abearing on or connection with the matter at hand 相关联的和手头的事务有关系或关联的

extremists 极端主义者,持极端观点的人

lie outside thearea of moral choice:不在道德问题范围,与道德取舍无关





75) When that happens, it is not amistake: it is mankind's instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinctthat should be encouraged rather than laughed at.


75) 时间状语从句When // that // happens, // 并列结构1 it // is not // a mistake: // 并列结构2 it //is // mankind's instinct // 介词短语作后置定语for moralreasoning / in action, // 独立主格结构an instinct // 定语从句that // should 并列结构11 被动结构be encouraged // rather than // 并列结构22 省略结构(be)laughed at.


that (代词作主语)联系上下文应该译为“当人们产生同情心的时候”

it 两个“it”都指代“When that happens”,译作“这”。

mankind's instinctfor moral reasoning 人类道德推理的本能

instinct:an inbornpattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a responseto specific environmental stimuli 本能一种天生的行为方式,其因物种不同而各异,通常是对某一具体环境刺激的反应


in action 起作用

rather than 而不

Section IV English-Chinese Translation Directions: Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET 2.(15


They were, by far, the largest and most distant objects that scientists had ever detected:a strip ofenormous cosmic clouds some 15 billion light-years from earth.31)

But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15

billion years ago. That was just about the moment that the universe was born. What the researchers found was at once both amazing and expected: the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cosmic Background Explorer satellite --

Cobe--had discovered landmark evidence that the universe did in fact begin with the primeval explosion that has become known as the Big Bang (the theory that the universe originated in an explosion from a single mass of energy).